Alexander the Great
Alexander defeated Darius III of Persia, capturing Susa and Babylon
After his death a power struggle resulted in a four way division
Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
Seleucid Empire in the east
Pergamon Kingdom of Asia Minor
Octavian (who became Caesar Augustus of the Christmas story) defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra VII, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt in the Battle of Actium.
Herod the Great backed the wrong horse, but was granted Palestine due to his allegiance to the Roman Empire way of life