Alexander the Great


Alexander defeated Darius III of Persia, capturing Susa and Babylon



After his death a power struggle resulted in a four way division



  • Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
  • Seleucid Empire in the east
  • Pergamon Kingdom of Asia Minor
  • Macedon




Octavian (who became Caesar Augustus of the Christmas story) defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra VII, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt in the Battle of Actium.



Herod the Great backed the wrong horse, but was granted Palestine due to his allegiance to the Roman Empire way of life